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    zelighozar
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    Care Sheets

    Post by zelighozar on Wed Feb 25, 2009 10:35 am

    Teach us how you take good care of your scorpion. Post it here!


    Last edited by zelighozar on Sat Feb 28, 2009 3:57 am; edited 2 times in total
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    PANDINUS IMPERATOR CARE SHEET from The Venom List

    Post by Fire Starter on Sat Feb 28, 2009 2:37 am

    Pandinus imperator
    Species name: Pandinus imperator (1841, C.L. Koch)
    Common name: Emperor scorpion
    Family: Scorpionidae
    Distribution: Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Togo, Nigeria
    Habitat: Typically found in hot, humid tropical forests and savannas of West Africa.
    Venom strength: Mild venom. Not dangerous to humans.

    IMG: http://img513.imageshack.us/img513/2771/pandinus006jy8.jpg

    Temperament and behaviour
    One of the largest scorpion species in the world, reaching lengths up to 20 cm (8-inches).
    Although they are big and built like tanks, they can also be really sensitive.
    Pandinus imperator is one of the most inoffensive scorpions found in the hobby. However, wild-caught specimens tend to be more aggressive than captive-bred specimens. This species will use its strong chelae for defence and capturing prey. The stinger is rarely used in defense and prey capture. Instead, emperors rely on their large and powerful chelae to hold and crush prey and discourage attacks from predators.

    Pandinus imperator is a communal scorpion, easy to keep and maintain in groups. Sometimes a fight will break out between group members but lasts only a few minutes. However, emperors have been known to kill and eat cage mates. Fights usually break out when multiple scorpions in a group want to use the same common shelter. To avoid such problems always make sure that there is one shelter per specimen in group enclosures. I have seen at least 15 emperors of mixed instars (instar 5 to adult) making use of the same piece of shelter.

    Sexing
    It’s relatively easy to sex these animals.
    First of all, males are more slender in build and generally a bit smaller than females. If only a single emperor is present, take a look at the pectines and the genital operculum. The pectines of a males are larger and have 14 to 17 teeth. The pectines of females will have 14 to 16 teeth. Because the pectine tooth count of males and females overlap in numbers, a pectine count won’t do any good for sexing purposes.
    The most accurate method to determine sex is by looking at the genital opperculum; the operculum of the male is oval and that of the female more heart-shaped. Take a look at the pictures below to see the differences.

    Male:
    IMG: http://img490.imageshack.us/img490/296/pandinusmanpd7.jpg


    Female:
    IMG: http://img490.imageshack.us/img490/9482/pandinusvrouwkadertu9.jpg

    Breeding
    IMG: http://img123.imageshack.us/img123/8816/img1666kt1.jpg

    At the moment I have one female that gave birth to 20 scorplings (30-April-2007). The female ate one scorpling that probably wouldn’t have survived on its own for long. The birth took a total of 3 hours.
    On 17-May-2007 the scorplings molted to instar 2 (see picture above) and a few left the mothers back at 20-May-2007.

    (IMG:http://img159.imageshack.us/img159/5320/pandinusinstar2002rz0.jpg)

    These scorpions are relatively easy to breed; make sure that the male and female are mature. Both of them must have been well fed. Courtship and mating can be initiated by the male or female. The promenade a deux or “dance” will include male juddering, pedipalp gripping, sexual stinging, cheliceral “kissing”, pectines of the male moving rapidly over the substrate surface, female swaying and last but not least, at the end of mating, females may attack, kill and consume the male (especially in wild-caught specimens). The male usually tries to make a get away, if the enclosure is large enough he will probably succeed.

    The gestation period is relatively long and can take 9 to 11 months. Depending on environmental conditions. See the “housing” section for more details.

    Pandinus imperator on average gives birth to about 11 scorplings, with a range from 1 to 20.
    The scorplings are relatively easy to raise, the key is keeping them warm and humid. Always make sure that there is a water dish in the cage. I have raised Pandinus imperator scorplings in a group. The group consisted of 4 scorplings; I raised them in a large round deli-cup (diameter of 20 cm/8 inches). The substrate was coco peat, with to a depth of 10 cm (4-inches). I made ventilation holes in the top and sides of the cup in order to provide high ventilation to prevent the growth of molds and mite infestations.

    IMG: http://img458.imageshack.us/img458/6920/pmassaib7.jpg

    IMG: http://img458.imageshack.us/img458/6836/keizerverveling1nf8.jpg

    IMG: http://img458.imageshack.us/img458/4558/keizerverveling2xi8.jpg

    IMG: http://img444.imageshack.us/img444/4003/keizerverveling3ae4.jpg

    IMG: http://img444.imageshack.us/img444/3166/keizernavervellingjp8.jpg

    These scorpions are slow growers; it can take up to 2 years (or even longer) before an emperor reaches adulthood. While in the wild there are specimens reported to reach adulthood within a year.
    Mother emperors are known for taking good care for their young. They will crush food for them so they can have an easy meal. Even if you keep the scorplings with their mother for a longer period than typically recommended, there shouldn’t be any problems. Just make sure to keep them well fed.
    I prefer to separate the young to make sure they are all healthy and getting enough food to grow.

    Housing
    These scorpions come from humid and warm tropical forests and savannas of western Africa, therefore, keep them in a humid (80 %) and warm (30 *C/86 *F during the day; 20 *C/ 68 *F during the night) environment. Keep one adult specimen in an enclosure of about 50x30x30 cm (20x12x12 inches). If housing an adult pair, the enclosure should be at least 60x40x30 cm (24x16x12 inches). Floor space is more important than height.

    The substrate I use is coco peat because it can be easily moistened and retains humidity levels in the enclosure. If needed, you can always make use of the false bottom method (see below). Give these scorpions a moist layer of substrate at least 10 cm (4-inches) in depth. They love to dig and should be given the opportunity to do so in captivity. Another very important thing to place in their enclosure is a water dish; they like to drink a lot. Furthermore, in group enclosures, always provide 1 shelter per specimen. These scorpions do not like sunlight and other forms of bright light and should always be provided with retreats that will allow them to get away from bright lights. Shelters can be made out of wood or stones. Make sure the shelter is securely placed in a way that it cannot fall down upon the scorpion.

    IMG: http://img405.imageshack.us/img405/6457/img1279vl9.jpg

    False bottom setup
    This is a very handy method to make sure the humidity stays at the high end.
    To start, fill the bottom of the enclosure with a good layer of gravel. Place a hollow tube on the gravel-layer and fill the enclosure with the desired substrate. Through the fill tube; add water to the gravel-layer. Make sure to fill until half the gravel-layer is submerged. The water will seep down and through the substrate, insuring that the substrate remains moist at all times. The only thing to take care of is to check the water level weekly and add more as necessary to keep it at the recommended level.

    Feeding
    Like all scorpions, emperors will eat almost anything they can capture, from crickets to lizards.
    I’ve even seen them scavenging: taking a dead grasshopper from the substrate and simply eating it. Younger emperors can be fed crickets and mealworms, while the larger animals seem to like large grasshoppers more than crickets and other types of prey.

    Feed younger animals a single prey item twice weekly. Larger animals and adults can be fed once every week. Adults may even refuse food for short periods of time.

    Understanding Pandinus imperator
    Sometimes I get a lot of questions about this species, I will hereby try to explain the most frequently asked questions. The questions I receive about housing, temperature and other related subjects will not be explained here, since these topics are covered under “housing” above.

    Q: My P. imperator seems to be dragging its tail all over the place; he/she seems to have lost function in it. What could it be?
    A: This could be caused by old age, as I have seen in a few of my older scorpions. Not long after this the scorpions died. However it also seems to be caused by a too dry of an environment, especially in younger scorpions. You can try placing your scorpion in a moister environment with a lower temperature for a day or two to see whether the scorpion returns to its normal behaviour.

    Q: I have always heard that P. imperator is a calm scorpion; mine is always trying to attack me. Why is this?
    A: There is a big difference between individual specimens and one scorpion won’t act like another. Furthermore, I have seen a big difference between wild-caught specimens and captive-bred specimens. The wild-caught specimens seem more aggressive compared to the captive-bred. If your scorpion is a female, it may be gravid? Gravid females tend to be more aggressive than non-gravid females.

    Q: Do these scorpions climb? My emperor was in its enclosure but now it seems to be gone!
    A: First of all, despite their large size and cumbersome weight, emperors are very good climbers. Don’t let their size fool you on that point. Secondly, these animals can lift themselves up by standing upright on their tails. Make sure that the lid of your enclosure can lock securely to prevent escapes. If your enclosure is properly sealed and locked, try searching in the substrate. It could have dug a new burrow or may have closed an existing burrow with substrate.

    IMG: http://img409.imageshack.us/img409/3815/klimmerhc6.jpg


    Q: I have an adult imperator, but I’ve not seen it eat for a few weeks now. The housing and environmental conditions are good. Is my scorpion sick?
    A: Adult imperators (especially males) are known for not eating for a long time. Just keep the temperature and humidity at the levels recommended above and wait. Try to offer prey once per week and see if your scorpion feeds. If not, remove the prey and retry in another week. It can take awhile but eventually your emperor will start eating again.


    References:
    - The scorpion files, Gary A. Polis and others.
    - Lucian K. Ross, paper about Pandinus imperator.
    - Raising Pandinus/Heterometrus Babies, www.venomlist.com by BrianS
    - www.pandinus.net, by Dr. Boris F. Striffler


    Thanks to:
    - The people of venomlist.com for providing extra info on Pandinus imperator
    - Anita Zoetemeijer for providing me picture of a molting Pandinus imperator
    - Lucian K. Ross for his outstanding paper about Pandinus imperator and for giving advice on writing the article.
    - Dr. Boris F. Striffler for his advice on the distribution of Pandinus imperator.


    Last edited by Fire Starter on Mon Mar 02, 2009 8:57 am; edited 2 times in total
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    HOTTENTOTTA HOTTENTOTTA CARE SHEET from The Venom List

    Post by Fire Starter on Sat Feb 28, 2009 2:47 am

    Species name: Hottentotta Hottentotta
    Common name: West African Ground Scorpion
    Family: BUTHIDAE
    Distribution: AFRICA
    Habitat: Typically found in hot, humid tropical forests and savannas of West Africa.
    Venom strength: LEVEL 3

    This 7-8cm large scorpion can be found almost everwhere in Africa. Because of that it is not easy to find the right captive conditions for your speciman if it is a WC animal.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    I keep mine as follows:
    The substrate is a mixture of sand and soil (60/40), which I fill in about 5cm deep. Stones or pieces of bark serve them as hides.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    The temperature in the enclousure is about 30?C at day and up to 40?C in some places. At night the temperature drops to 22?C.
    The humidity is about 40-50% most time but every two weeks I spray some water into the enclousure. A small bottle cap for drinking which I fill unregularly every two or three weeks should not be missing.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    In my experience Hottentotta hottentotta is a very aggressive scorpion. The venom of this species is a 3-3.5 out of 5, but although they do not belong to the most venomous scorpions one should be very careful because of their aggressiveness.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    One last thing that has to be mentioned when talking about this scorpion is that they are parthenogenetic. That means that a female of this species can get gravid without ever mating with a male before.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif


    Last edited by Fire Starter on Mon Mar 02, 2009 9:00 am; edited 2 times in total
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    PARABUTHUS TRANSVAALICUS CARESHEET from The Venom List

    Post by Fire Starter on Sat Feb 28, 2009 6:41 am


    Species name:
    Parabuthus transvaalicus
    Common name: The South African Fattail Scorpion, African Black Spitting Fat-tailed Scorpion
    Family: BUTHIDAE
    Distribution: Africa (Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe)
    Habitat: Typically found in hot, humid tropical forests and savannas of Sout Africa.
    Venom strength: Medical data indicate that this species has a strong venom and is medical significant. In a study in Zimbabwe, 63 % of the stings of this species resulted in intense pain only. 27 % of the stings resulted in minor systematic envenomation (hypersalivation, sweating and subjective neurological complaints). Severe scorpionism was seen in 10 % of the cases (neuromuscular symptoms with significant parasympathetic nervous system and cardiac involvment). Fatality rate was 0.3 % with deaths in children below 10 years and adults above 50 years. The cadiac involvment in P. transvaalicus envenomations differ from general buthid scorpionisms. Use of species specific antivenom seem to have a positive therapeutic effect.

    LD 50 value for this species is reported to be 4.25 mg/kg. Due to it size, this scorpion can inject very large amounts of venom. NB! This species is able to squirt venom up to one meter away, and venom in the eyes can be very dangerous. Safty glasses is reccomended when dealing with this species.

    The medical significance of this species has been discussed. The Zimbabwe study indicates that P. transvaalicus should be treated as a dangerous species with a potential life-treatning venom.

    Parabuthus transvaalicus
    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Parabuthus transvaalicus is a rather large scorpion from the dry savannahs and deserts of Southern Africa. The females in particular can grow to about 5 inches in length! The metasoma (tail) is quite large and thick thus earning this species the common name of Black Thick Tailed Scorpion. This species is sporadically available as wild caught imports, however learning to culture this species in captivity is important as captive breeding programs are the future of the Scorpion Hobby. One should never take for granted that this species will always be available as wild caught imports. The Tarantula Hobby is a shining example of this as many species are only available as captive bred stock. With this in mind, one should always assume that the same can happen with many of the scorpion species we now enjoy. I have sucessfully bred this species four times and I hope everyone can benefit from the experciences I have had with this species.

    Venom
    This species is known to have moderately toxic venom. With an LD 50 of 4.25 (1) this species is considered by most to be medically significant not as much for the strength but for the quanity it can deliver. To top it off this species is also known to possess the ability to spray venom at an annoyance. I personally have never witnessed this scorpion spray venom but several fellow Scorpion Hobbyists have reported witnessing this. Needless to say, this species deserves a good deal of respect and should only be kept by those with some experience in keeping scorpions that will exercise caution when working with them.

    Husbandry
    Parabuthus transvaalicus is native to the dry areas of Southern Africa. With this in mind, the captive conditions should be kept warm and dry. They seem to thrive with temperatures between 80F-87F. If kept too cool and moist this species can get a fungal infection known as mycosis which will eventually kill the scorpion.
    Housing the adults is actually quite simple. Kritter Keepers or 5-10 gallon tanks can be used with screen type tops which allow for good ventilation. I prefer to use about 3 inches of dry peat, sand or a mixture of both. A hide can be a piece of wood, propped up flat stone or just about anything that the scorpion can hide under. They are quite content with digging shallow scrapes underneath solid objects and therfore deep substrate is really not needed. About once a month the hobbyist can offer water in 2 Liter soda bottle cap. I will occasionally let the water dish overflow and even lightly spray the enclosure to simulate a light rain. One should be extremely careful when doing this because if the moisture does not evaporate fully within about 6-10 hours mycosis can develop! The extra ventilation by screened tops allow will allow the moisture to completely dry out within a few hours as long as the temperature is warm. I usually spray no more than once every month or two.
    Occasionally adults can be kept together if fed very well however this pecies has been know to be cannibalistic so unless the hobbyist has several specimens they should be kept separate except for introducing breedin pairs.

    Breeding
    This species is relatively easy to breed when the husbandry is correct. Normally the male will initiate the courtship by clasping the female by her chelae. They will do the typical "dance" which usually lasts for about 15 minutes. Keep in mind it is important to know the sex of your scorpions before trying to breed them for obvious reasons. Adults are easy to sex as the males are built thin yet have bulbous chelae where as the females are much more robust with thinner chelar. The males bulbous chela will not develop until the last molt so in order to sex out juveniles one must look at the undeath side of the scorpion. Underneath is a "comb like appendage called a pectine. At the base of the pectine, if a long lobe is observed the specimen is a female.
    The first female I mated had a long gestation of almost 11 months while the second female had a shorter gestation of 7 months with temperature kept around 83-85F. They both give birth within two weeks of each other during the month of August wich leads me to believe they postponed until the hottest month of the year. Interestingly, I had my male living with both females for several months with no problems. After they give birth I removed the male until the young had dispersed and were separated. I then reintroduced the male which mated with the females but after mating the females showed no tolerance to the males and I had to remove him from both enclosures for fear he might end up being another meal of the females.
    The first female give birth to 67 young while the second female give birth to 52.
    Note: I have spoken with several Invertebrate hobbyists that have had some problems with getting this species to give birth to healthy live young. They report that they often drop yellowish colored eggs or undeveloped young. The people that have reported this are experienced tarantula breeders and going on what I know from tarantula hobbyists, the temperatures are usually kept in the 70sF which leads me to believe is the problem. My experiences with most scorpion species shows that they are much healthier when kept at warmer temperatures.

    Raising the Early Instar Scorplings.
    After the babys molt into 2nd instars they will eventually disperse from the Mother. When this happens, the young should be separated into individual condiment cups or deli cups. Just like the adults the substrate should be dry whether you choose sand, peat or a mixture of both. I recommend making holes in the sides of the cups espicially if stacking several together as this will keep the ventilation adequate. The young will have a voracious appetie and will eventually attack prey item as large as themselves. Small crickets, roach nymphs, and other small insects can be offered as food. The young cant be overfed as they will stop eating when they have had enough.
    The young will take a little more than 2 years to mature. The males mature at 6th instar while the females mature at 7th instar. As the young grow the hobbyist can keep moving them into bigger enclosures to accomidate their growing size. When the young finally plump up, the hobbyist can add a drop or 2 of water in the condiment cup which slightly raises the humidity and will often insigate a molt. Again, one must be careful when and if doing this as too humid for too long can lead to death. There will be some mortality with some of the 2nd and 3rd instars of this species. I have observed that most species which give birth to large numbers of young will have higher mortality than those that dont. Perhaps this is the reason for a high yield?

    Conclusion
    Parabuthus transvaalicus is an interesting and hardy captive to keep as long as the husbandry requirements are met and the hobbyist will exercise caution when working with this species. I hope that those who read this article will be inspired to keep and breed this species in the future. I have said many times that captive breeding is the future of the Invertebrate Hobby and all hobbyists should freely share their experiences with various species


    (1)http://scorpions.dimensional-rift.co.uk/LD50table.htm

    mating couple
    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Female pectine
    IMG: http://img211.imageshack.us/img211/3558/parasxingcd2.th.jpg

    adult male chela
    IMG: http://img66.exs.cx/img66/7393/mvc020s7qo.jpg

    adult female chela
    IMG:http://img66.exs.cx/img66/8743/mvc022s1uq.jpg


    Last edited by Fire Starter on Mon Mar 02, 2009 9:02 am; edited 1 time in total
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    HETEROMETRUS SPINIFER CARE SHEET from The Venom List

    Post by Fire Starter on Sat Feb 28, 2009 7:05 am

    Scientific name: Heterometrus spinifer
    Common name: Thai forest scorpion, black forest scorpion
    Family: Scorpionidae
    Distribution: Cambodia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam
    Venom strength: LEVEL 1 (Not considered medically important)

    Behaviour

    Growing to about a maximum of 13 cm in total length (about 5 inch) these black and relative large scorpions are quit impressive in appearance. Their behaviour can be different between specimens.

    Most specimens are pretty defensive while some can be more indefensive. Overall these scorpions will impress anyone trying to handle them, they will pinch when needed.
    This species will use its strong chelae for defence and capturing prey. The stinger is rarely used in defense and prey capture. Heterometrus spinifer will use the stinger if a prey fights hard or when cornered by a possible attacker.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Heterometrus spinifer is a communal scorpion, easy to keep and maintain in groups. Males can be more aggressive against other males in one enclosure, but mostly these are little fights and end quick without any scorpion harmed.

    Fights usually break out when multiple scorpions in a group want to use the same common shelter. To avoid such problems always make sure that there is one shelter per specimen in group enclosures. I have had up to 6 specimens in one enclosure and never had a real problem with fights. Even while a female was carryingscorplings on her back, the other scorpions never created a problem.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif


    Sexing

    It’s relatively easy to sex these animals.
    First of all, males are more slender in build and generally a bit smaller than females. If only a single specimen is present, take a look at thepectines and the genital operculum. The pectine tooth count in both sexes is 15-19 teeth. Because the pectine tooth count of males and females overlap in numbers, a pectine count won’t do any good for sexing purposes.
    The most accurate method to determine sex is by looking at the genital opperculum; the operculum of the male is oval and that of the female more heart-shaped.

    There is no sexual dimorphism noticable in proportions of the pedipalps.


    Male

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif


    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif


    Female

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Housing

    These scorpions come from humid and warm tropical forests and savannas of Asia, therefore, keep them in a humid (80 %) and warm (30 *C/86 *F during the day; 20 *C/ 68 *F during the night) environment. Keep one adult specimen in an enclosure of about 50x30x30 cm (20x12x12 inches). If housing an adult pair, the enclosure should be at least 60x40x30 cm (24x16x12 inches). Floor space is more important than height.

    The substrate I use is coco peat because it can be easily moistened and retains humidity levels in the enclosure. If needed, you can always make use of the false bottom method (see below). Give these scorpions a moist layer of substrate at least 10 cm (4-inches) in depth. They love to dig and should be given the opportunity to do so in captivity. Another very important thing to place in their enclosure is a water dish; they like to drink a lot. Furthermore, in group enclosures, always provide 1 shelter per specimen. These scorpions do not like sunlight and other forms of bright light and should always be provided with retreats that will allow them to get away from bright lights. Shelters can be made out of wood or stones. Make sure the shelter is securely placed in a way that it cannot fall down upon the scorpion.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    False bottom setup
    This is a very handy method to make sure the humidity stays at the high end.
    To start, fill the bottom of the enclosure with a good layer of gravel. Place a hollow tube on the gravel-layer and fill the enclosure with the desired substrate. Through the fill tube; add water to the gravel-layer. Make sure to fill until half the gravel-layer is submerged. The water will seep down and through the substrate, insuring that the substrate remains moist at all times. The only thing to take care of is to check the water level weekly and add more as necessary to keep it at the recommended level.

    Feeding

    Like all scorpions, Heterometrus spinifer will eat almost anything they can capture, from crickets to lizards. For pet scorpions I use grasshoppers and occasionally roaches.
    Younger Heterometrus spinifer can be fed crickets and mealworms, while the larger animals seem to like large grasshoppers more than crickets and other types of prey.

    Roaches sometimes bury themselves, this is no problem for a Heterometrus spinifer. They can dig up the roach without much problems.
    Feed younger animals a single prey item twice weekly. Larger animals and adults can be fed once every week. Adults may even refuse food for short periods of time.

    Breeding

    These scorpions are relatively easy to breed; make sure that the male and female are mature. Both of them must have been well fed. Courtship and mating can be initiated by the male or female. The promenade adeux or “dance” will include male juddering, pedipalp gripping, sexual stinging, cheliceral “kissing”, pectines of the male moving rapidly over the substrate surface, female swaying and last but not least, at the end of mating, females may attack, kill and consume the male (especially in wild-caught specimens). The male usually tries to make a get away, if the enclosure is large enough he will probably succeed. The chance of the male being killed and eaten is very small and in captivity I personally never heard about males being eaten.

    The gestation period is relatively long and can take 9 to 11 months. Depending on environmental conditions. See the “housing” section for more details.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Heterometrus spinifer on average gives birth to about 15 scorplings, with a range from 1 to 30.
    The scorplings are relatively easy to raise, the key is keeping them warm and humid. Always make sure that there is a water dish in the cage. I have raised Heterometrus spinifer scorplings in a group up to 8. I raised them in a large round deli-cup (diameter of 20 cm/8 inches). The substrate was coco peat, with to a depth of 10 cm (4-inches). I made ventilation holes in the top and sides of the cup in order to provide high ventilation to prevent the growth of molds and mite infestations. As soon as the scorplings became to big for the deli-cup I transferred them to an other enclosure.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif


    Raising the kids

    Something to take into consideration.
    These animals are known for being very communal. To test this I have left 2 scorplings in the enclosure of the female. I have witnessed the female actually catching, killing and crushing prey for the scorplings. The mother with scorplings was fed once a week, giving them a big locust. The female catched the locust, took it back into the burrow and started crushing it. At that moment the scorplings came closer to take their part of the meal.

    While other scorplings of the same brood were fed crickets 2 times per week and kept at similar temperature and humidity. The scorplings which were left with their mother have grown significantly faster and each instar was reached sooner then the scorplings separated from their mother. While the separated group reached instar 4, the communal ones reached instar 5 in the same period. This might indicate that keeping them communal actually helps in growing.

    Scorpling close to molt

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Sibling which was separated and recently molted

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Scorplings will run for the mother as soon as one opens the enclosure, they even grab mom and hold on to her for protection.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif


    Understanding Heterometrus spinifer

    Because I get a lot of questions regarding Pandinus imperator and sometimes Heterometrus spinifer are sold as Pandinus imperator.
    That way the questions can shift from Pandinus imperator to Heterometrus spinifer.
    Below are a few questions that are asked most:

    Question:

    I have bought a large black scorpion which was labeled as "Thai black". At this moment I'm not sure about the name because it also looks a lot likePandinus imperator.

    Can you tell me some differences between Heterometrus spinifer and Pandinus imperator?

    Answer:

    The easiest way to differentiate Heterometrus spinifer from Pandinus imperator is by looking at the chela. Pandinus imperator has a lot of granulation on the chela, where Heterometrus spinifer. has smooth chela.

    Also looking at the telson can help here. The telson of Heterometrus spinifer is more elongated and the vesicle is longer than the aculeus.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Other methods are looking at the pedipalps. Heterometrus has 4 trichobothria on ventral side of the tibia where Pandinus has more than 10 trichobothria on ventral side of the tibia.

    Question:

    Is there a good way to differentiate the different Heterometrus sp.?

    Answer:

    There are ways to differentiate the different Heterometrus sp., but it's not easy to do this. There are multiple ID keys available on the internet but some might be incomplete.

    One way which is probably the easiest is looking at the granulation on the carapace.

    It can be difficult to see in pictures.

    Carapace granulation in Heterometrus spinifer

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Carapace granulation in Heterometrus petersii
    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Carapace granulation in Heterometrus cyaneus
    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Carapace granulation in Heterometrus longimanus
    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Carapace granulation in Heterometrus xanthopus
    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Also the chelae can differentiate between the Heterometrus species. For example Heterometrus xanthopus has chela with a lot of granulation.

    Heterometrus spinifer chela

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Heterometrus petersii chela

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Heterometrus xanthopus chela

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    Thanks to:

    Brian and the people of Venomlist for the opportunity and their support in writing this review.
    Yvonne Romkes for her great support while writing this review.

    References:

    Books

    Catalog of scorpions of the world (1758-1998), Victor Fet, W. David Sissom, Graeme Lowe, Matt E. Braunwalder

    A review of the Genus Heterometrus, Frantisek Kovarik, Euscorpius publications, December 2004 - No. 15

    The biology of scorpions, Gary A. Polis

    Websites
    www.pandinus.net by Boris F. Striffler
    www.pandinusimperator.nl by Jeroen Kooijman

    Copyright: Jeroen Kooijman, 2008


    Last edited by Fire Starter on Mon Mar 02, 2009 9:06 am; edited 1 time in total
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    Fire Starter
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    HADRURUS SPADIX / ARIZONENSIS CARE SHEET from The Venom List

    Post by Fire Starter on Mon Mar 02, 2009 8:54 am

    HADRURUS SPADIX / HADRURUS ARIZONENSIS
    Species name: HADRURUS SPADIX / HADRURUS ARIZONENSIS
    Common name: DESSERT HAIRY SCORPION / DESSER HAIRY BLACK TOP SCORPION
    Family: Caraboctonidae
    Distribution: Mexico and USA (Arizona, Southern parts of California, Nevada and Utah).
    Habitat: This spcies is found in in semi-arid and arid habitats (also in desert-like habitats, but rarly on sand dunes)
    Venom strength: LEVEL 2

    General Information

    Hadrurus arizonensis is a large North American species which belongs to the family Caraboctonidae and the genus Hadrurus, which was first described by Thorell in 1876. The family Caraboctonidae consists of four genera and eighteen or more species which can generally be found throughout the extreme South West portions of North America, and throughout the Western half of South America. Hadrurus arizonensis however only occupy certain niches in parts of Arizona, Southern California, Nevada and Utah; some populations may exist south of the border in Mexico as well.

    Hadrurus arizonensis have some extremely similar appearing relatives belonging to their genus. These are a few methods to differentiate arizonensis from other Hadrurus species in which they may co-exist with.

    Hadrurus arizonensis
    Anterior portion of inter-ocular triangle always light yellow or straw color. Mesosoma brown, date colored with all extremities light yellow or straw in color.

    Hadrurus spadix
    Anterior portion of inter-ocular triangle dark brown to black in color, uniform color throughout carapace and mesosoma.

    Hadrurus hirsutus
    Very similar to arizonensis, but exhibits a darkly colored region beyond that of arizonensis which spreads through the ocular tubercle. (Of course this would simply be an indicator to look further into ID’ing the specimen by sufficient means.)

    Anatomy

    Anatomically, Hadrurus arizonensis, along with the other members of the Hadrurus family, exhibit many physical characteristics that allow them to flourish in they’re native environments. The most visual trait is immense amount of setae covering various areas of Hadrurus arizonensis. The pedipalps, walking legs, metasoma and vesicle are all covered with densely packed fine hairs, which intercept passing air and other chemical signals and allow the scorpion to process its surroundings. In my opinion, the amount of setae in such species is an adaptation conducive to it’s environment, which include, delving into substrate, as well as detecting ground vibrations and other stimuli from further away. Also, as opposed to tropical species, where prey is usually plentiful, many desert species need to take advantage of anything they may happen upon, thus, they have adapted to be on high alert.

    Another noteworthy feature of some “desert-type” scorpions like Hadrurus are their use of extra lipid layers, which aid in preventing water loss. This allows the scorpion to ingest much of its water through prey; however they have been observed naturally drinking from more conventional water sources as well.

    Habitat

    Hadrurus arizonensis are frequently found in dry areas, consisting of sand, soil and clay mixtures, but do range into some semi-arid environments as well. They are an extremely active nocturnal species that digs quite frequently. Often they can be found in temporary scrapes such as under logs, scraps of lumber, rocks and similar objects, but they are known for having extensive burrows ranging from one, to several feet below the surface. These deep, more permanent burrows are often constructed into some kind of slope, which naturally should provide a more stable medium for burrowing. These photos are areas which Hadrurus arizonensis have been documented living in.

    IMG: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/125/342880547_82bc910af5.jpg

    IMG: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/147/342856859_cb03bb099d.jpg

    IMG: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/210/478854719_2811b035ff.jpg

    Determining Sex in Hadrurus arizonensis

    One method is to count the teeth on the pectines. Apparently, 26-33 would indicate a female, and 35 or more would indicate male. Others indicate 32-37 equal male, and 24-31 equal female. So of course pectine count cannot always be 100% accurate. I however have never bothered counting due to the method below.

    I prefer observing the placement of the pectines, which is much easier. As you can see, the males pectines have a noticeably larger gap in the area of the genital operculum in which some of the plural membrane is visible. Females however have a different angle at which the pectines form, and they appear to engulf the sides of the genital operculum. In my opinion, this is the most reliable way to differentiate the sexes. This method is even known to work at young instars.

    It has also been reported that the pectine teeth are sometimes longer in males, than females.

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif

    IMG: http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif


    Captive Keeping

    Although some simply keep species like such on a light sand layer, I believe they need many inches of burrowing substrate to live more comfortably. As said previous, they are endless diggers, and can easily excavate six inches to a foot in one night. They should be kept fairly warm during they day, personally mine are between 80 and 90 degrees during the day, and room temperature at night. Some level of humidity is needed for the species to thrive, which is why a considerable amount of substrate is recommended, allowing the scorpion to chose its preferred level of comfort. Allowing too much humidity along with poor circulation may cause the scorpion to develop mycosis, so do monitor how saturated the substrate is, and be sure the enclosure is properly ventilated from the top as well as the sides if possible.

    Keeping Hadrurus arizonensis together can be an issue, depending on the temperament of the individual scorpions and also the size and setup of the enclosure. In general it is best said to keep them individually, but if you must, floor space, and available retreats should be plentiful. It is also worth noting that it captivity, it has been observed that females have a habit of attacking male bunk mates. This means if you must keep in small groups, it should preferably be done with those of the same sex.

    This is a typical Hadrurus setup by my standards.
    (IMG:http://illiweb.com/fa/pbucket.gif)

    Breeding

    Hadrurus arizonensis, being a larger species and having to undergo a winter frost, take a bit of time to gestate. After mating, a brood will be delivered after 10 to 12 months, naturally usually in spring or early summer. The moderately large young will molt, and become second instar slings after 7-10 days. More often there is little success raising full generations of Hadrurus. Most likely, they require a more conducive environment than we have provided to be able to develop and grow properly. Therefore, most individuals perish while molting the first couple of times. Although some have reported current individuals surviving through the more fragile stages of development, the occasions have been infrequent, but hopefully not for long. Hadrurus arizonensis require approximately 5 -7 molts to mature. Because the species has proven hard to raise, it's debated as to what the final number is. Some suggest a winter cooling period is absolutely necessary to institute proper growth and development of unborn young; I myself have practiced this in this past with similar species and found it to work quite well.

    Toxicity

    Hadrurus arizonensis is not known to be a potentially harmful species. Envenomations usually cause localized pain, swelling and discoloration of the injection site. It has also been documented that even when very (relatively) large quantities of venom were injected into mice 50-60 grams in mass, it posed no long term threats. It has also been found that the venom of Hadrurus gertschi, one relative of arizonensis, contains a peptide so called "HgeTx1", a potassium channel antagonist. Which means nothing to those who are not molecular science geniuses, but does however give us a relative comparison to other species. In fact, similar peptides are shared by species such as Pandinus imperator (60% identical), Heterometrus spinifer (45% identical) and Scorpio maurus (40% identical), referring to the peptide composition. Similarly, "Hadrurin", a cytolytic (cell destroying) and antimicrobial peptide, has also been extracted from this species. These natural peptides aid research efforts and could potentially be used to cure diseases such as cancer, fungal infections and bacterial wounds.

    Sources: The Scorpion Files, Scorpions of the genus Hadrurus, Stahnke, Herbert L, Info for Chuck Christiansen

    Just want to give thanks to Brian who gave me the oppurtunity to do a SOTM, and thank you to those who took the time to read it, I really appriciate it. Also many thanks to those who have written these before me and those to come, I really enjoyed it and look foward to the potential of others in the future.
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    SLug_PeneTrator
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    emperor g sagul

    Post by SLug_PeneTrator on Fri May 29, 2009 3:09 pm

    mga bro ako mego na ka palit ug emperor unsex nya ni palit q lain xure male 7i pag sagol namu sa container bah kae muara cyag mu kurug mura cyag na patol2 ymana? thankx
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    Re: Care Sheets

    Post by Fire Starter on Sat May 30, 2009 7:54 am

    ang imung male moy ni kurog o clang duha?

    mu shake jud na ang male, part na sa mating ritual para maka detect ang female niya. unsa man nahitabo after kurog2x?
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    Re: Care Sheets

    Post by marsy on Wed Sep 16, 2009 3:16 pm

    wala mag laway slug? basin tuod ug patulon jud? bitaw, part na sa ritual vin. ug sa tao pa nag pakitang gilas pa to para ma pansin. hahaha
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    lawrence_tbs
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    Re: Care Sheets

    Post by lawrence_tbs on Thu Sep 17, 2009 1:31 am

    SLug_PeneTrator wrote:mga bro ako mego na ka palit ug emperor unsex nya ni palit q lain xure male 7i pag sagol namu sa container bah kae muara cyag mu kurug mura cyag na patol2 ymana? thankx

    na subraan gro ka horny... hehehe
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    Re: Care Sheets

    Post by azland on Thu Sep 17, 2009 6:39 am

    nyahahaha!! saons subraan sa ka horny..
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    jemzkrux
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    Re: Care Sheets

    Post by jemzkrux on Fri Apr 02, 2010 8:49 am

    nai caresheet sa centruroides dria? knang base sa experience jd bah hehehe

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